Journal paper
篇名On Zhu Xi’s Chuci jizhu in terms of Lixue and Self-Cultivation
作者姓名Chen Chih-Hsin
AbstractZhu Xi (1130-1200) commentates, compiles Chuci, and accomplishes its related works: Chuci jizhu, Chuci bianzheng and Chuci houyu. When critiquing these works, contemporary scholars often focus on their literary aspects and values. This approach leads to an assumption that Zhu Xi’s philosophy, Lixue (Learning of Priniple), the principle Zu Xi abides by while studying ci and fu, limits his literay achievement. However, this paper aims to examine how it is reasonable for Zu Xi as an essential Confucian scholar noted for Lixue study to annotate and compile Chuci in terms of self-discipline, which Lixue scholars do their best to pursue. In this way, it is possible for Zhu Xi to turn his Chuci collections into a model of guidebook, instructing the later students to cultivate their characters and spiritual lives when studying Chuci. The methods and features Zhu Xi adopts to analyze Chuci thus become clear to us. First, based on the commentating methods used in Shi jizhuan, Zhu Xi’s commentaries on Shijing, he continues the same methodological approach and form of analysis. It is an approach first developed by Xie Liangzuo (1050-1103), that all who would like to cultivate their characters when reading the poems in Shijing should follow Liuyi. Zhu Xi here again endeavors to celebrate the significance of Liuyi: Feng, Ya, Song (folksong, diplomatic parlance, religious oration), Fu, Bi, Xing (narration, metaphor, suggestion) within every sentence and chapter in Chuci. Zhu thus delicately leads the reader to appreciate the loyalty of Xhu Yuan (?342-278 B.C.) as well as his every word of passion. Second, when compiling all Chuci related works throughout the history, Zhu Xi adopts the structure of Xu Chuci and Bian Lisao by Chao Buzhi (1053-1110) ─ a change of form from Jing (the original canon) to Zhuan (narration of the canon), as well as from Zheng (poems) to Bian (allegoric poems) ─ according to which Zhu Xi defines Chuci as Bian (variation) of Feng and Ya. In consequence, Zhu Xi in commenting on these texts pays special attention to that whether Chu Yuan and later wrtiers can subdue one’s self and return to propriety like the writers (or protagonists) of Shijing when expressing their emotions. In other words, Zhu Xi tends to guide readers, even if in dark and gloomy moods as those poets, to hold on to propriety, the key to self-cultivation, a quality supposedly possessed by every Confucian scholar. In general, Zhu Xi’s Chuci related works indicate a way to delight the heart and enlighten the mind with poetry and thus reach self-possession. With Zhu Xi’s methods, art appreciation and self-cultivation can well reinforce each other. This is the legacy of Lixue tradition as well a unique innovation in conventional Chinese Literature.
KeywordChuci, Chuci jizhu, Zhu Xi, Xie Liangzuo, Chao Buzhi
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