Journal paper
篇名Fang Zong-Cheng and the transformation of the Cheng-Zhu Confucianism during the period of Dao-Xian
作者姓名Tien Fu-mei
Abstract  Ever since its rise in the Song Dynasty, Neo-Confucianism has continued to face challenges posed by social and political changes. Neo-Confucianism adjusts and transforms to keep its vitality and meet the demands of the time, seeing its renaissance in the period of Dao-Xian. Even though often seen as lack of innovation model, Neo-Confucianism during this period still plays a positive role and exerts influence in the society. This paper aims to examine how Fan Zong-cheng, continuing the thought of Fang Tung-shu, constructs new patterns of Neo-Confucian discourse in the face of social changes and unrest in the late Qing Dynasty. This article includes three parts. First, I will discuss how he emphasizes the practical over the abstract. Second, the focus will be on his fashioning of the saint image— saints convert the ideas of virtue into action. The third part would be the comparison between Fang Zhong-cheng and Fang Tung-shu. Fang Zong-cheng turns to a more practical point, unlike Fang Tung-shu, who is critical of Hang Learning and Xin Learning in order to defend Cheng-Zhu in the main stream Chien-Jia study. To sum up, Fang Xong-cheng transforms Confucianism into a discourse emphasizing more on the moral practice in the period of Dao-Xian.
KeywordFang Zong-cheng, Fang Tung-shu, Cheng-Zhu Confucianism, Neo- Confucianism of Late Qing Dynasty, academic history in Qing Dynasty
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